Figures

Professor Adam Rutland

Summary

Adam is a Professor of Developmental and Social Psychology at IPS, and the head of the Developmental Research Group. His career has spanned a number of institutions in the UK, and his hundreds of scientific publications have been cited over 5,000 times. For details about the Developmental Intergroup Processes (DIP) Lab.

Grants and Awards

Adam has received external grant funding from a variety of organisations to support his work including: the Economic and Social Research Council, the National Institutes of Heath, the British Academy, and the Nuffield Foundation. 
 

Research Interests

Research Interests
  • Social-cognitive development
  • Prejudice
  • Intergroup relationships
  • Social reasoning and morality
  • Peer exclusion
  • Rejection
  • Group dynamics and victimization
  • Cross-group friendships
  • Intergroup attitudes
  • Psychological well being
  • Interventions to reduce prejudice
 
 

Publications

Book

Children and Social exclusion: Morality, Prejudice and Group Identity 
Rutland, Adam and Killen, Melanie. 2011. Children and Social exclusion: Morality, Prejudice and Group Identity. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.. ISBN 978-1405176514

Book Section

How do children learn to actively control their explicit biases: The role of recursive reasoning about mental states and group norms? 
Rutland, Adam. 2013. How do children learn to actively control their explicit biases: The role of recursive reasoning about mental states and group norms? In: Mahzarin R Banajii and Susan A Gelman, eds. Navigating the Social World: What Infants, Children, and other Species Can Teach Us. USA: OUP USA, pp. 336-340. ISBN 978-0199890712
The development and self-regulation of intergroup attitudes in children 
Rutland, Adam. 2013. The development and self-regulation of intergroup attitudes in children. In: Mark Bennett and Fabio Sani, eds. The development of the social self. East Sussex: Psychology Press, pp. 247-265. ISBN 978-0415649056
Children’s understanding of deviance and group dynamics: The development of subjective group dynamics. 
Rutland, Adam and Abrams, Dominic. 2011. Children’s understanding of deviance and group dynamics: The development of subjective group dynamics. In: Jolanda Jetten and Matthew J Hornsey, eds. Rebels In Groups: Dissent, Deviance, Difference and Defiance. Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 135-157. ISBN 978-1405196857
Children, stereotypes and prejudice 
Rutland, Adam. 2010. Children, stereotypes and prejudice. In: John Levine and Michael Hogg, eds. Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. London: SAGE. ISBN 978-1412942089
Crossing thresholds –Acculturation and social capital in British Asian Children 
Rutland, Adam; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa and Brown, Rupert. 2009. Crossing thresholds –Acculturation and social capital in British Asian Children. In: Margaret Wetherell, ed. Theorizing Identities and Social Action (Identity Studies in the Social Sciences). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 198-219. ISBN 978-0230580886
Social exclusion in middle childhood and early adolescence. 
Rutland, Adam; Killen, Melanie and Jampol, N. 2009. Social exclusion in middle childhood and early adolescence. In: K H Rubin; W Bukowski and B Laursen, eds. Handbook of Peer Interactions, Relationships, and Groups. New York: Guilford Publications, pp. 249-266. ISBN 978-1593854416
An Integrative Approach to Changing Children’s Intergroup Attitudes 
Rutland, Adam and Cameron, Lindsey. 2008. An Integrative Approach to Changing Children’s Intergroup Attitudes. In: Sheri Levy and Melanie Killen, eds. Intergroup Relations: An Integrative Developmental and Social Psychological Perspective. New York: OUP, pp. 191-203. ISBN 978-0195189742
The development of subjective group dynamics 
Rutland, Adam and Abrams, Dominic. 2008. The development of subjective group dynamics. In: Sheri Levy and Melanie Killen, eds. Intergroup Relations: An Integrative Developmental and Social Psychological Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 47-65. ISBN 978-0195189742

Article

The development of intergroup resource allocation: The role of cooperative and competitive in-group norms 
McGuire, Luke; Rizzo, Mike; Killen, Melanie and Rutland, Adam. 2018. The development of intergroup resource allocation: The role of cooperative and competitive in-group norms. Developmental Psychology, 54(8), pp. 1499-1506. ISSN 0012-1649
The role of competitive and cooperative norms in the development of deviant evaluations 
McGuire, Luke; Rizzo, Mike; Killen, Melanie and Rutland, Adam. 2018. The role of competitive and cooperative norms in the development of deviant evaluations. Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920
Attitudes toward immigrants among the youth: Contact interventions to reduce prejudice in the school context 
Jones, Sian and Rutland, Adam. 2018. Attitudes toward immigrants among the youth: Contact interventions to reduce prejudice in the school context. European Psychologist, 23(1), pp. 83-92. ISSN 1016-9040
Group norms, intergroup resource allocation and social reasoning among children and adolescents 
McGuire, Luke; Manstead, A. S. R. and Rutland, Adam. 2017. Group norms, intergroup resource allocation and social reasoning among children and adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 53(12), pp. 2333-2339. ISSN 0012-1649
Competence matters! Understanding biculturalism in ethnically diverse adolescents 
Benbow, Alison E. F. and Rutland, Adam. 2017. Competence matters! Understanding biculturalism in ethnically diverse adolescents. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27(5), pp. 366-373. ISSN 1052-9284
Increasing ethnic diversity moderates longitudinal effects of individual differences on friendship homophily 
Jugert, Philipp; Rutland, Adam; Brown, Rupert; Cameron, Lindsey; Nigbur, Dennis; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick and Le Touze, Dominique. 2017. Increasing ethnic diversity moderates longitudinal effects of individual differences on friendship homophily. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27(5), pp. 411-423. ISSN 1052-9284
Majority and minority ethnic status adolescents' bystander responses to racism in school 
Palmer, Sally B.; Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam and Blake, Belinda. 2017. Majority and minority ethnic status adolescents' bystander responses to racism in school. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27(5), pp. 374-380. ISSN 1052-9284
Cross-ethnic friendships, psychological well-being, and academic outcomes: Study of South Asian and White children in the UK 
Bagci, Sabahat C.; Kumashiro, MadokaRutland, AdamSmith, Peter K. and Blumberg, Herbert H.. 2017. Cross-ethnic friendships, psychological well-being, and academic outcomes: Study of South Asian and White children in the UK. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, pp. 190-205. ISSN 1740-5629
Fair Resource Allocation Among Children and Adolescents: The Role of Group and Developmental Processes 
Rutland, Adam and Killen, Melanie. 2017. Fair Resource Allocation Among Children and Adolescents: The Role of Group and Developmental Processes. Child Development Perspectives, 11(1), pp. 56-62. ISSN 1750-8592
Fair Resource Allocation Among Children and Adolescents: The Role of Group and Developmental Processes 
Rutland, Adam and Killen, Melanie. 2016. Fair Resource Allocation Among Children and Adolescents: The Role of Group and Developmental Processes. Child Development Perspectives, ISSN 1750-8592
Equity and Justice in Developmental Science: Discrimination, Social Exclusion, and Intergroup Attitudes 
Killen, Melanie; Rutland, Adam and Yip, Tiffany. 2016. Equity and Justice in Developmental Science: Discrimination, Social Exclusion, and Intergroup Attitudes. Child Development, 87(5), pp. 1317-1336. ISSN 0009-3920
Cross-ethnic friendships, psychological well-being, and academic outcomes: Study of South Asian and White children in the UK 
Bagci, Sabahat C.Kumashiro, MadokaRutland, AdamSmith, Peter K. and Blumberg, Herbert H.. 2016. Cross-ethnic friendships, psychological well-being, and academic outcomes: Study of South Asian and White children in the UK. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14(2), pp. 190-205. ISSN 1740-5629
Conceptual Change in Science Is Facilitated Through Peer Collaboration for Boys but Not for Girls 
Leman, Patrick J.; Skipper, Yvonne; Watling, Dawn and Rutland, Adam. 2016. Conceptual Change in Science Is Facilitated Through Peer Collaboration for Boys but Not for Girls. Child Development, 87(1), pp. 176-183. ISSN 0009-3920
The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression 
Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam and Cameron, Lindsey. 2015. The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33(4), pp. 419-433. ISSN 0261510X
When Does the In-Group Like the Out-Group? Bias Among Children as a Function of Group Norms 
Rutland, Adam; Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Abrams, Dominic and Killen, Melanie. 2015. When Does the In-Group Like the Out-Group? Bias Among Children as a Function of Group Norms. Psychological Science, 26(6), pp. 834-842. ISSN 0956-7976
Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes 
McGuire, LukeRutland, Adam and Nesdale, Drew. 2015. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes. Child Development, 86(4), pp. 1290-1297. ISSN 0009-3920
A Developmental Science Approach to Reducing Prejudice and Social Exclusion: Intergroup Processes, Social-Cognitive Development, and Moral Reasoning 
Rutland, Adam and Killen, Melanie. 2015. A Developmental Science Approach to Reducing Prejudice and Social Exclusion: Intergroup Processes, Social-Cognitive Development, and Moral Reasoning. Social Issues and Policy Review, 9(1), pp. 121-154. ISSN 1751-2395
The role of cognitive abilities in children's inferences about social atypicality and peer exclusion and inclusion in intergroup contexts 
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Palmer, Sally B.; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M. and Lee, Samantha. 2014. The role of cognitive abilities in children's inferences about social atypicality and peer exclusion and inclusion in intergroup contexts. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(3), pp. 233-247. ISSN 0261-510X
Children's responses to social atypicality among group members – advantages of a contextualized social developmental account 
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Palmer, Sally B. and Purewal, Kiran. 2014. Children's responses to social atypicality among group members – advantages of a contextualized social developmental account. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(3), pp. 257-261. ISSN 0261-510X
When Is It Okay to Exclude a Member of the Ingroup? Children's and Adolescents’ Social Reasoning 
Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic and Killen, Melanie. 2014. When Is It Okay to Exclude a Member of the Ingroup? Children's and Adolescents’ Social Reasoning. Social Development, 23(3), pp. 451-469. ISSN 0961-205X
Cross-ethnic friendships: Are they really rare? Evidence from secondary schools around London 
Bagci, Sabahat C.Kumashiro, MadokaSmith, Peter K.Blumberg, Herbert H. and Rutland, Adam. 2014. Cross-ethnic friendships: Are they really rare? Evidence from secondary schools around London. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 41, pp. 125-137. ISSN 0147-1767
Context differences in children’s ingroup preferences. 
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic and Killen, Melanie. 2014. Context differences in children’s ingroup preferences. Developmental Psychology, 50(5), pp. 1507-1519. ISSN 0012-1649
Context differences in children's ingroup preferences 
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic and Killen, Melanie. 2014. Context differences in children's ingroup preferences. Developmental Psychology, 50(5), pp. 1507-1519. ISSN 0012-1649
When do children dislike ingroup members?: Resource allocation from individual and group perspectives.
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic and Killen, Melanie. 2014. When do children dislike ingroup members?: Resource allocation from individual and group perspectives. Journal of Social Issues, 70(1), pp. 29-46. ISSN 0022-4537
Are minority status children's cross-ethnic friendships beneficial in a multiethnic context? 
Bagci, Sabahat C.Rutland, AdamKumashiro, MadokaSmith, Peter K. and Blumberg, Herbert H.. 2014. Are minority status children's cross-ethnic friendships beneficial in a multiethnic context? British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(1), pp. 107-115. ISSN 0261-510X
Are minority status children's cross-ethnic friendships beneficial in a multiethnic context? 
Bagci, Sabahat C.Rutland, AdamKumashiro, MadokaSmith, Peter K. and Blumberg, Herbert H.. 2014. Are minority status children's cross-ethnic friendships beneficial in a multiethnic context? British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(1), pp. 107-115. ISSN 0261510X
Evaluations of and reasoning about normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup members: Development of the black sheep effect. 
Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey and Van de Vyver, Julie. 2014. Evaluations of and reasoning about normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup members: Development of the black sheep effect. Developmental Psychology, 50(1), pp. 258-270. ISSN 0012-1649
Acculturation attitudes and social adjustment in British South Asian children: A longitudinal study 
Brown, Rupert; Baysu, Gülseli; Cameron, Lindsey; Nigbur, Dennis; Rutland, Adam; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; LeTouze, Dominique and Landau, Anick. 2013. Acculturation attitudes and social adjustment in British South Asian children: A longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(12), pp. 1656-1667. ISSN 0146-1672
Development of Intra- and Intergroup Judgments in the Context of Moral and Social-Conventional Norms 
Killen, Melanie; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn and Hitt, Aline. 2013. Development of Intra- and Intergroup Judgments in the Context of Moral and Social-Conventional Norms. Child Development, 84(3), pp. 1063-1080. ISSN 0009-3920
Evaluations of, and reasoning about, normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup Members: Development of the Black Sheep Effect 
Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey and Van de Vyyer, J. 2013. Evaluations of, and reasoning about, normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup Members: Development of the Black Sheep Effect. Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649
Children’s cross-ethnic friendships: Why are they less stable than same-ethnic friendships? 
Jugent, Philipp; Noack, Peter and Rutland, Adam. 2013. Children’s cross-ethnic friendships: Why are they less stable than same-ethnic friendships? European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10, pp. 649-662. ISSN 1740-5629
What works to address prejudice? Look to developmental science research for the answer. Commentary. 
Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn and Rutland, Adam. 2012. What works to address prejudice? Look to developmental science research for the answer. Commentary. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(6), p. 439. ISSN 0140-525X
Group identity and peer relations: A longitudinal study of group identity, perceived peer acceptance and friendships amongst ethnic minority English children. 
Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; LeTouze, Dominique; Watters, Charles and Jugent, Philipp. 2012. Group identity and peer relations: A longitudinal study of group identity, perceived peer acceptance and friendships amongst ethnic minority English children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30, pp. 283-302. ISSN 0261-510X
Promoting equity and justice in childhood: Policy implications 
Killen, Melanie; Rutland, Adam and Ruck, Martin. 2011. Promoting equity and justice in childhood: Policy implications. Social Policy Report, 25(4), pp. 1-25. ISSN 1075-7031
Changing attitudes with a little imagination’: Imagined contact effects on young children’s intergroup bias. 
Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam; Turner, Rhiannon; Holman-Nicolas, Rosie and Powell, Claire. 2011. Changing attitudes with a little imagination’: Imagined contact effects on young children’s intergroup bias. Anales de Psicología, 27(3), pp. 708-717. ISSN 0212-9728
When and why does extended contact work? The role of high quality direct contact and group norms in the development of positive ethnic intergroup attitudes amongst children. 
Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam; Hossain, Rosa and Petley, Rebecca. 2011. When and why does extended contact work? The role of high quality direct contact and group norms in the development of positive ethnic intergroup attitudes amongst children. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14(2), pp. 193-206. ISSN 1368-4302
Friendship Preferences Among German and Turkish Preadolescents 
Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter and Rutland, Adam. 2011. Friendship Preferences Among German and Turkish Preadolescents. Child Development, 82(3), pp. 812-829. ISSN 0009-3920
Do children want skinny friends? The role of ‘weight’ in children’s friendship preferences and intergroup attitudes 
Palmer, Sally B. and Rutland, Adam. 2011. Do children want skinny friends? The role of ‘weight’ in children’s friendship preferences and intergroup attitudes. Anales de Psicologia, 27(3), pp. 698-707. ISSN 0212-9728
A New Social-Cognitive Developmental Perspective on Prejudice: The Interplay Between Morality and Group Identity 
Rutland, Adam; Killen, Melanie and Abrams, Dominic. 2010. A New Social-Cognitive Developmental Perspective on Prejudice: The Interplay Between Morality and Group Identity. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), pp. 279-291. ISSN 1745-6916
Learning to control ethnic intergroup bias in childhood 
Fitzroy, Sarah and Rutland, Adam. 2010. Learning to control ethnic intergroup bias in childhood. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), pp. 679-693. ISSN 0046-2772
Children’s Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups 
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph and Ferrell, Jennifer M.. 2009. Children’s Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups. Child Development, 80(1), pp. 224-243. ISSN 0009-3920
Direct and Extended Friendship Effects on Minority and Majority Children’s Interethnic Attitudes: A Longitudinal Study 
Feddes, Allard R.; Noack, Peter and Rutland, Adam. 2009. Direct and Extended Friendship Effects on Minority and Majority Children’s Interethnic Attitudes: A Longitudinal Study. Child Development, 80(2), pp. 377-390. ISSN 0009-3920
Children's judgments of disloyal and immoral peer behavior: subjective group dynamics in minimal intergroup contexts 
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Ferrell, Jennifer M. and Pelletier, Joseph. 2008. Children's judgments of disloyal and immoral peer behavior: subjective group dynamics in minimal intergroup contexts. Child Development, 79(2), pp. 444-461. ISSN 0009-3920
Children’s judgments of disloyal and immoral peer behaviour: Subjective group dynamics in minimal intergroup contexts 
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Ferrell, Jennifer M. and Pelletier, Joseph. 2008. Children’s judgments of disloyal and immoral peer behaviour: Subjective group dynamics in minimal intergroup contexts. Child Development, 79(2), pp. 444-461. ISSN 0009-3920
Acculturation, well-being and classroom behaviour among white British and British Asian primary-school children in the south–east of England: Validating a child-friendly measure of acculturation attitudes 
Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Cameron, Lindsey; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; LeTouze, Dominique; Rutland, Adam and Watters, Charles. 2008. Acculturation, well-being and classroom behaviour among white British and British Asian primary-school children in the south–east of England: Validating a child-friendly measure of acculturation attitudes. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(6), pp. 493-504. ISSN 0147-1767
Stability and variability in national and European self-identification 
Rutland, Adam; Cinnerella, Marco and Simpson, Rhona. 2008. Stability and variability in national and European self-identification. European Psychologist, 13(4), pp. 267-276. ISSN 1016-9040
Development of the positive-negative asymmetry effect: In-group exclusion norm as a mediator of children’s evaluations on negative attributes 
Rutland, Adam; Brown, Rupert; Cameron, Lindsey; Ahmavaara, Annie; Arnold, Katie and Samson, Jenni. 2007. Development of the positive-negative asymmetry effect: In-group exclusion norm as a mediator of children’s evaluations on negative attributes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(1), pp. 171-190. ISSN 0046-2772
Extending the conversation: Transdisciplinary approaches to social identity and intergroup attitudes in children and adolescents 
Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic and Levy, Sheri. 2007. Extending the conversation: Transdisciplinary approaches to social identity and intergroup attitudes in children and adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(5), pp. 417-418. ISSN 0165-0254
Promoting children’s positive intergroup attitudes towards stigmatized groups: Extended contact and multiple classification skills training 
Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam and Brown, Rupert. 2007. Promoting children’s positive intergroup attitudes towards stigmatized groups: Extended contact and multiple classification skills training. International Journal of Behaviorial Development, 31(5), pp. 454-466. ISSN 0165-0254
Social capital, ethnicity and children’s well-being: Aspects of social capital in the everyday lives of British Punjabi children 
Hossain, Rosa; Watters, Charles; Brown, Rupert; Cameron, Lindsey; Landau, Anick; LeTouze, Dominique; Nigbur, Dennis and Rutland, Adam. 2007. Social capital, ethnicity and children’s well-being: Aspects of social capital in the everyday lives of British Punjabi children. International Journal of Migration, Health, and Social Care, 3(2), pp. 4-21. ISSN 1747-9894
Older but Wilier: Ingroup accountability and the development of subjective group dynamics 
Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey and Ferrell, Jennifer M.. 2007. Older but Wilier: Ingroup accountability and the development of subjective group dynamics. Developmental Psychology, 43, pp. 134-148. ISSN 0012-1649
Changing children’s intergroup attitudes towards refugees: Testing different models of extended contact. 
Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam; Brown, Rupert and Douch, Rebecca. 2006. Changing children’s intergroup attitudes towards refugees: Testing different models of extended contact. Child Development, 77(5), pp. 1208-1219. ISSN 0009-3920
Extended contact through story reading in school: Reducing children’s prejudice towards the disabled 
Cameron, Lindsey and Rutland, Adam. 2006. Extended contact through story reading in school: Reducing children’s prejudice towards the disabled. Journal of Social Issues, 62(3), pp. 489-510. ISSN 0022-4537
Social norms and self-presentation: Children’s implicit and explicit intergroup attitudes 
Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Milne, Alan and McGeorge, Peter. 2005. Social norms and self-presentation: Children’s implicit and explicit intergroup attitudes. Child Development, 76(2), pp. 451-466. ISSN 0009-3920